Posts Tagged 1990s
Intelligent dance music (commonly IDM) is a form of electronic music that emerged in the early 1990s. It was originally influenced by developments in underground dance music such as Detroit Techno and various breakbeat styles that were emerging in the UK at that time. Stylistically, IDM tended to rely upon individualistic experimentation rather than adhering to musical characteristics associated with specific genres of dance music. The range of post-techno styles to emerge in the early 1990s were described variously as art techno, ambient techno, intelligent techno, and electronica. In the United States, the latter term is now used by the music industry as a catchall to describe EDM and its many derivatives.
The term IDM is said to have originated in the United States in 1993 with the formation of the IDM list, an electronic mailing list originally chartered for the discussion of music by (but not limited to) a number of prominent English artists, especially those appearing on a 1992 Warp Records compilation called Artificial Intelligence.
Usage of the term “intelligent dance music” has been criticised by electronic musicians such as Aphex Twin as derogatory towards other styles and is seen by artists such as Mike Paradinas as being particular to the U.S.
During the late 1980s, a number of UK based electronic musicians were inspired by the underground dance music of the time and started to develop their own styles. By the early 1990s, the music associated with this experimentation had gained prominence with releases on a variety of record labels including Warp Records (1989), Black Dog Productions (1989), R & S Records (1989), Carl Craig’s Planet E,Rising High Records (1991), Richard James’s Rephlex Records (1991), Kirk Degiorgio’s Applied Rhythmic Technology (1991), Eevo Lute Muzique (1991), General Production Recordings (1989), Soma Quality Recordings (1991), Peacefrog Records (1991), and Metamorphic Recordings (1992).
Ambient house, a genre that fused house music (particularly acid house) with ambient music, was being produced in the United Kingdom around this time, by bands such as The Orb. A major influence on ambient house was Japan’s Yellow Magic Orchestra, sometimes cited as one of the pioneers of ambient house. During the early 1990s, the term “ambient house” became synonymous with intelligent dance music in general, but was eventually replaced by several other terms. Following the lead of ambient house, ambient techno music was soon produced by artists such as Aphex Twin and Japan’s Tetsu Inoue. Ambient techno distinguished itself with strong techno and electro influences, including more extensive use of Roland’s TR-808 and TR-909 drum machines. The term “ambient techno” was eventually replaced by “intelligent techno” following the success of Warp’s Artificial Intelligence series.
By 1992, Warp Records was marketing the musical output of the artists on its roster using the description electronic listening music, but this was quickly replaced by intelligent techno. In the same period (1992–93), other names were also used, such as armchair techno,ambient techno, and electronica, but all were attempts to describe an emerging offshoot of electronic dance music that was being enjoyed by the “sedentary and stay at home”. Steve Beckett, co-owner of Warp, has said that the electronic music the label was releasing at that point was targeting a post-club, home-listening audience. In 1993 a number of new record labels emerged that were producing intelligent techno geared releases including New Electronica, Mille Plateaux, 100% Pure, and Ferox Records
Chill out music emerged in the early and mid-1990s in “chill rooms” at dance clubs, where relaxing music was played to allow dancers a chance to “chill out” from the more emphatic and fast-tempo music played on the main dance floor.
The genres associated with chill-out are mostly ambient, trip-hop, nu jazz, ambient house, New Age and other sub-genres of downtempo. Sometimes the easy listening sub-genre lounge is considered to belong to the chill-out collection as well. Chill out as a musical genre or description is synonymous with the more recently popularized terms “smooth electronica” and “soft techno” and is a loose genre of music blurring into several other very distinct styles of electronic and lo-fi music.
The earliest mentioned “chill out room” was at the legendary Madchester nightspot, Konspiracy. In these rooms, visitors would find couches, comfortable pillows, psychedelic light shows projecting entrancing images and music that was decidedly downtempo, especially when compared to what was going on a few feet away on the dance floor. Its history began in the UK, with post-punk band The Durutti Column being an abstract influence on the genre in the ’80s. Higher Intelligence Agency (the HIA) helped move the chill room concept from sideshow to main event with their Oscillate chill party events in Birmingham and elsewhere in the early to mid nineties. Their first releases came out on the now defunct Beyond record label and soon thereafter in the U.S. on the Waveform label – who describes the music as ‘exotic electronica.’
In 1990 the KLF released their seminal ambient house album named Chill Out.
A number of compilations with “Chill Out” in their titles were released in the mid-1990s and beyond, helping to establish the genre as being closely related to downtempo and trip hop but also incorporating, especially in the early 2000s, slower tempo varieties of house music, nu-jazz, psybient, and lounge music of approximately 80 to 110bpm . The genre also includes some forms of trance music,ambient music, and IDM, and it has entirely subsumed the older genre Balearic Beat, although that term is still used interchangeably with chill out. Chill out is generally tonal, relaxing (or at least not as “intense” as other music from the styles it draws from), although when used to describe the music played in chillout rooms at raves, it can also encompass extremely psychedelic experimental sounds of great variety.
Hard trance is the natural progression of trance music merging gabber, techno and trance, and originated in Europe, mainly Belgium, Germany and Holland in the mid 1990s.
Hard trance is synonymous with hard and strong kicks with resonant bass ala gabber and usual trance synth riffs to give it the signature trance sound. Melody is around 130-150 and is mainly instrumental as vocalisation of the songs gives it a more uplifting warmer sound. It has since evolved and is now mainly a dead genre form, overtaken by genres such as Hardstyle and Jumpstyle.
The Hardcore genre surprisingly has one of the broadest terms of all EDM. There are dozens and dozens of sub-genres but they are incredibly varied. The term hardcore usually means music that is darker and harder, but not necessarily faster.
Hardcore as a word (in relation to EDM) can trace its roots to Belgium. A number of artists such as à;GRUMH… and later Leather Strip began to call their music hardcore techno. The origins of the name are largely rooted in this scene, although hardcore also regularly incorporated elements of house into its sound.
In the early 1990s, the hardcore sound began to introduce sped up hip-hop breakbeats, piano breaks, dub and low frequency basslines and cartoon-like noises, which has been retrospectively called ‘old skool’ hardcore, and is widely regarded as the progenitor of happy hardcore (which later lost the breakbeats) and jungle (which alternatively lost the techno style keyboard stabs and piano breaks). This is more or less down to the further development of the synthesizer and the very creative use of the Amen Break.
Tribal house is a subgenre of house music, rising to popularity in the early 1990s in New York. Tribal house is loosely defined by the additional of tribal or ethnic style samples or vocals, with features such as chanting or ululation. A large usage of bongo drum samples and traditional wood or percussion instrument samples give the music its tribal feel, coupled with the use of tribal vocals give Tribal house its distinctive sound.
As with a lot of house genres, the big players of the house music scene dip into Tribal house from time to time, with artists such as Danny Tenaglia, Sandy Rivera, Peace Division and Junior Vasquez have all made Tribal house tracks in their time.
Tribal house in its current guise is very popular in the gay party scene. This is heavily due to gay-oriented music labels such as Tribal America, Twisted and Star 69, who put on gay nights and festivals.
Presently, tribal house remixes played by DJs frequently are the ‘dub’ versions, remixes that use only minimal vocals from the original track, with the music often in a minor key to keep it sounding edgier and more tribal, unlike the major key that a more mainstream club remix might use.
UK garage (also known as UKG) is a genre of electronic dance music originating from England in the early 1990s. UK garage is a descendant of house music which originated in Chicago, Detroit, New Jersey and New York. The genre usually features a distinctive syncopated 4/4 percussive rhythm with ‘shuffling’ hi-hats and beat-skipping kick drums. Garage tracks also commonly feature ‘chopped up’ and time-shifted or pitch-shifted vocal samples complementing the underlying rhythmic structure. UK garage was largely subsumed into other styles of music and production in the mid-2000s, including dubstep, bassline and grime. The decline of UK garage during the mid-2000s saw the birth of UK funky, which is closely related.
UK garage has along underground following on pirate radio stations, especially in London during the mid 1990s, and there was large UK commercial success with UK garage with artists such as MJ Cole, So Solid Crew, The Artful Dodger, Delinquent and others.
UK Garage has a heavy MC scene, giving the speed of the genre (around 138-143 bpm) and the urban style of the music gives MCs a good vehicle to rhyme with and there are often commercial tracks with MCs recorded onto them such as MC Neat and Neutrino.
Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle, and the creation of the slogan “industrial music for industrial people”. In general, the style is harsh and challenging. Allmusic defines industrial as the “most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music”; “initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments (tape music, musique concrète, white noise, synthesizers, sequencers, etc.) and punk provocation”.
The first industrial artists experimented with noise and aesthetically controversial topics, musically and visually, such as fascism, serial killers and the occult. Their production was not limited to music, but included mail art, performance art, installation pieces and other art forms.
While the term was initially self-applied by a small coterie of groups and individuals associated with Industrial Records in the 1970s, it broadened to include artists influenced by the original movement or using an “industrial” aesthetic.
These artists expanded the genre by pushing it into noisier and more electronic directions. Over time, its influence spread into and blended with styles including ambient and rock, all of which now fall under the post-industrial music label. Electro-industrial music is a primary sub-genre that developed in the 1980s. The two other most notable hybrid genres are industrial rock and industrial metal, which include bands such as Nine Inch Nails and Ministry, both of which released platinum-selling albums in the 1990s. These three genres are often referred to as simply industrial.
Jungle is a genre of electronic music that incorporates influences from other genres, including breakbeat hardcore and reggae/dub/dancehall. The fast tempos (150 to 170 bpm) breakbeats, other heavily syncopated percussive loops, samples and synthesized effects makes up the easily recognizable form of jungle. Producers create the drum patterns featured; sometimes completely off-beat, by cutting apart breakbeats (most notably the Amen break). Long pitch-shifted snare rolls are also common in oldschool jungle.
Jungle producers incorporated classic Jamaican/Caribbean sound-system culture production-methods. The slow, deep basslines and simple melodies (reminiscent of those found in dub, reggae and dancehall) accentuated the overall production, giving jungle its “rolling” quality.
In the summer of 1992, a Thursday night club in London called “Rage” was changing format in response to the commercialization of the rave scene (see breakbeat hardcore). Resident DJs Fabio and Grooverider, amongst others, began to take the hardcore sound to a new level. The speed of the music increased from 120bpm to 145bpm, while more ragga and dancehall elements were brought in and techno, disco and house influences were decreased.
Eventually, the music became too fast and difficult to be mixed with more traditional rave music, creating a division with the other popular electronic genres. When Hardcore lost the four-on-the-floor beat and created percussive elements solely from “chopped up” breakbeats, people began to use the terms ‘jungle’, ‘junglist’ and ‘junglism’ to describe the music itself. This was reflected in track titles of the era, typically from late 1992 and early 1993.
The club ‘Rage’ finally shut its doors in 1993, but the new legion of “Junglists” had evolved, changing dancing styles for the faster music, enjoying the off-beat rhythms and with less reliance on the chemical stimulation of the rave era.
Speedcore is a hybrid form of techno and hardcore that is characterised by a very high BPM and features violent or aggressive themes. The genre rarely goes under 300 BPM, the speed of the beats being the very definition of the genre.
Speedcore has never gained any real popular following, being given a kind of cult status, but it is relatively popular in The Netherlands and Germany.
Speedcore contains very highly distorted bass hits and snares, with horror movie or similar samples being played in the background often time stretched to give a scream a more drawn out, sadistic feel.
Electro house is a subgenre of the ever umbrella term House music. It’s origins are largely accepted to have come from 1980s electro music. It only really gained popularity in the mid 2000s due to the increase in technology behind music production, giving a much more “modern” sound to electro.
Electro house contains heavy basslines, and catchy high synthesised riffs, but the electro genes are still heavily intertwined within the music, with the odd “boop bop” of the early 808 sound.
The more recent Electro house is the 4 on the floor 4 sister of Dubstep, with very heavy and dirty bass made with saw and sine waves. Early pioneers of Electro house were artists such as Basement Jaxx, Mr Oizo but retrospectively artists such as Sublime and Arrivers would now be referred to as Electro house producers, but as their tracks were released in the early 1990s they were simply considered House or Rave.